Andrew's Weather Center

UTC/GMT/Z Time:

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UNDERSTANDING WEATHER ALERTS:
EMERGENCY
Significant and life-threatening weather is about to occur in a densely populated area. Seek sturdy shelter with extreme haste, as dangerous weather has been observed or confirmed on the ground. Weather emergencies are rare, but must be taken with the utmost seriousness when issued.
WARNING
Significant or severe weather is about to occur. Seek shelter immediately. If a warning is issued, then be aware that dangerous weather conditions have been observed or confirmed on the ground and are likely heading to your location.
WATCH
Weather watches are meant to make the public more aware of the chance for significant weather. This means that conditions are favorable for the specified weather to occur. Weather watches are issued when high confidence exists in significant weather developing soon.
ADVISORY
Do NOT underestimate or ignore a weather advisory. Advisories alert the public to potential significant weather that may stay below warning criteria, but will still pose a threat to life and property. Remain vigilant for potential changes to the weather advisory.



TIME CONVERSION TABLE:
UTC/Z 00z 01z 02z 03z 04z 05z 06z 07z 08z 09z 10z 11z 12z 13z 14z 15z 16z 17z 18z 19z 20z 21z 22z 23z
EDT 8P 9P 10P 11P 12A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10A 11A 12P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P 7P
EST 7P 8P 9P 10P 11P 12A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10A 11A 12P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P
https://www.andrewswxcenter.com/images/us_time_zones_final
CLOUD IDENTIFICATION TABLE:
Genus
Image
Altitude [feet]
Composition
Indication
Cirrus [Ci]
> 20,000 ft
Ice crystals
Fair weather; Uniform cirrus indicate an approaching warm front
Cirrocumulus [Cc]
> 20,000 ft
Primarily ice crystals
In winter, indicate fair, cold weather; At tropical latitudes, Cc may indicate an approaching tropical cyclone
Cirrostratus [Cs]
>= 20,000 ft
Ice crystals
Signals an approaching warm front if Cs thicken; Forms when layer of air lifted by convergence
Altostratus [As]
Between 6,500 and 20,000 ft
Water droplets
Signals incoming continuous rain or snow; Occasionally, rain may fall from As
Altocumulus [Ac]
Between 6,500 and 20,000 ft
Primarily of water droplets
Presence of Ac on a warm, humid summer morning suggest afternoon thunderstorms; Ac form in an unstable layer aloft
Stratocumulus [Sc]
Generally
Water droplets
Sc generally represent improving weather conditions; During winter, stable weather likely
Cumulonimbus [Cb]
Up to 50,000+ ft
Mixed phase
Convective/stormy weather in the vicinity; NOTE: Lightning can strike well outside of these clouds - Always remain aware of your weather surroundings
Cumulus [Cu]
Water droplets
As long as no vertical development is taking place, Cu indicate fair weather
Nimbostratus [Ns]
Primarily of water droplets; can contain ice crystals in sub-freezing air temperature
Ns are precipitation clouds; Ns are accompanied by light to moderate falling precipitation
Shelf/Arcus [-]
Water development
Approaching thunderstorm; Form when cool, sinking air from a storm's downdraft spread out ahead of the storm
Wall Cloud [-]
Water droplets
Severe weather is occurring nearby; These clouds mean trouble. Wall clouds often rotate and are usually the location where tornadoes form in a thunderstorm
Scud/Fractus [-]
Water droplets
If you are seeing scud clouds, that means that a parent thunderstorm clouds is nearby, where rain, hail, gusty winds, and lightning is likely occurring; Rain will very likely start soon
Mammatus [CBMAM]
Between 30,000 and 50,000 ft
Water droplets; Often mixed phase with ice crystals as well
These clouds occur when moist air sinks into a layer of dry air, creating pouch-like clouds; These clouds signal a nearby, thunderstorm, usually an intense one, and typically appear after the passage of said storm
Contrails [-]
Between 25,000 and ~60,000 ft
Primarily water droplets; can also contain sulfurous compounds or jet fuel impurities
Contrails form when there is ample moisture in the high levels of the atmosphere and the air is very cold; Short lived contrails may indicate fair weather due to the relatively dry air, and conversely, long-lived contrails may suggest a changing weather pattern (see the Appleman Chart above)
Noctilucent [NLC]
Between 250,000 and 280,000 ft
Dust particles and water vapor
These polar mesospheric clouds form when temperatures in the mesosphere are below -200 degrees Fahrenheit, causing water droplets to freeze into ice clouds

TIME ZONES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

ENHANCED-FUJITA SCALE TABLE:
EF Rating
Wind Speed [mph]
Damage Indicators
Example Image
EF0
65-85
Light damage; peels surface off of some roofs; shallow-rooted trees uprooted or pushed over
EF1
86-110
Moderate damage; roofs severely stripped; windows or other glass broken; mobile homes overturned or badly damaged
EF2
111-135
Considerable damage; roofs torn off well-constructed houses; foundations of frame homes shifted; light-object missiles generated; cars lifted off ground
EF3
136-165
Severe damage; heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown; trains overturned; entire stories of well-constructed buildings destroyed; severe damage to large buildings
EF4
166-200
Devastating damage; whole frame houses and well-constructed buildings completely leveled; cars thrown long distances, and small missiles generated
EF5
200+
Incredible damage; incredible phenomena will occur; car-sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 meters, high-rise buildings have significant damage; large buildings obliterated
SAFFIR-SIMPSON SCALE TABLE:
Category
Wind Speed [mph]
Storm Surge [ft]
Mean Minimum Surface Pressure [mb]
Example Image
Tropical Depression
Minimal
N/A
Tropical Storm
39-74
> 990
1
74-95
4-5
> 980
2
96-110
6-8
965-979
3
111-130
9-12
945-964
4
131-155
13-18
920-944
5
> 155
> 18
THE BEAUFORT SCALE:
Force
Wind
[Knots]
Wind
[mph]
WMO Classification
Effect on Land
Effect on Water
0
Calm
Smoke rises vertically
Sea surface smooth and mirror-like
1
1-3
1-3
Light Air
Smoke drift indicates wind direction;
wind vanes still
Scaly ripples; No foam crests
2
4-6
4-7
Light Breeze
Wind felt on face; Leaves rustle;
Weather vanes being to move
Small wavelets; Crests glassy;
No breaking
3
7-10
8-12
Gentle Breeze
Leaves and small twigs constantly moving;
Light flags extended
Large wavelets; crests begin to break;
Scattered whitecaps
4
11-16
13-18
Moderate Breeze
Dust, leaves, and loose paper lifted;
Small tree branches move
Small waves 1-4 ft. becoming longer;
Numerous whitecaps
5
17-21
19-24
Fresh Breeze
Small trees in leaf begin to sway
Moderate waves 4-8 ft taking longer form;
Many whitecaps; Some spray
6
22-27
25-31
Strong Breeze
Larger tree branches moving;
Whistling in wires
Larger waves 8-13 ft;
Whitecaps common; More spray
7
28-33
32-38
Near Gale
Whole trees moving;
Resistance felt walking against wind
Sea heaps up, waves 13-19 ft;
White foam streaks off breakers
8
34-40
39-46
Gale
Twigs breaking off trees;
Generally impedes forward progress
Moderately high (18-25 ft) waves of greater length;
Edges of crests begin to break into spindrift;
Foam blown in streaks
9
41-47
47-54
Strong Gale
Slight structural damage occurs;
Slate (shingles) blow off roofs
High waves (23-32 ft), sea begins to roll;
Dense streaks of foam;
Spray may reduce visibility
10
48-55
55-63
Storm
Seldom experienced on land;
Trees broken or uprooted, "considerable structural damage"
Very high waves (29-41 ft) with overhanging crests;
Sea white with densely blown foam;
Heavy rolling, lowered visibility
11
56-63
64-72
Violent Storm
Very rarely experienced;
Accompanied by widespread damage.
Exceptionally high (37-52 ft) waves;
Foam patches cover sea, visibility more reduced
12
64+
73+
Hurricane
Devastation
Air filled with foam, waves over 45 ft;
Sea completely white with driving spray;
Visibility greatly reduced
THE SPERRY-PLITZ ICE ACCUMULATION INDEX:
Ice Damage Index
Average NWS Ice Amount [inches]
Wind [mph]
Damage & Impact Descriptions
0
"Minimal risk of damage to exposed utility systems; no alerts or advisories needed for crew; few outages"
1
0.10-0.25
0.25-0.50
15-25
> 15
"Some isolated or localized utility interruptions are possible, typically lasting only a few hours. Roads and bridges may become slick and hazardous."
2
0.10-0.25
0.25-0.50
0.50-0.75
25-35
15-25
> 15
"Scattered utility interruptions expected, typically lasting 12 to 24 hours. Roads and travel conditions may be extremely hazardous due to ice accumulation."
3
0.10-0.25
0.25-0.50
0.50-0.75
0.75-1.00
>= 35
25-35
15-25
> 15
"Numerous utility interruptions with some damage to main feeder lines and equipment expected. Tree limb damage is excessive. Outages lasting 1-5 days."
4
0.25-0.50
0.50-0.75
0.75-1.00
1.00-1.50
>= 35
25-35
15-25
> 15
"Prolonged and widespread utility interruptions with extensive damage to main distribution feeder lines and some high voltage transmission lines/structures. Outages lasting 5-10 days.
5
0.50-0.75
0.75-1.00
1.00-1.50
> 1.50
>= 35
>= 25
>= 15
Any
"Catastrophic damage to entire exposed utility systems, including both distribution and transmission networks. Outages could last several weeks in some areas. Shelters needed."
Color Code
& Range
Category & Description
Precautions
& Tips
Code Green
0-50
Good - Air quality is good
None
Code Yellow
51-100
Moderate - Air quality becomes a concern for people with extra sensitivity to air pollution
People who are extra sensitive to air pollution should reschedule outdoor activities to when air quality improves
Code Orange
101-150
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups - Air quality is unhealthy for many people, especially those with lung disease, asthma, older adults, and children
Sensitive groups should cut back or reschedule strenuous outdoor activities
Code Red
151-200
Unhealthy - Air quality is unhealthy for everyone, especially those with heart or lung disease
Everyone should avoid strenuous outdoor activities
Code Purple
201-300
Very Unhealthy - Air quality is unhealthy for everyone, especially those with heart or lung disease
Everyone should avoid any physical outdoor activities
Code Maroon
301-500
Hazardous - Air quality is hazardous for everyone
Everyone should avoid any outdoor activities at all costs
UV Index Values
Description
Protection Level
1,2
Low - You can safely stay outside without the risk of sunburn
No skin protection required
3,4,5,6,7
Medium - Seek shade during midday hours (1:00-4:00 PM) - Sunscreen and hat recommended
Skin protection required if prolonged exposure outdoors
8,9,10,11+
High to Extreme - Avoid being outdoors during midday hours (1:00-4:00 PM) - Sunscreen required, hat strongly recommended
Extra skin protection required
Bortle Class Color Key/Magnitude Sky Description
1 Black / 7.6-8.0 Excellent, naturally dark skies
2 Gray / 7.1-7.5 Typical, truly dark skies - the Milky Way is clearly visible
3 Blue / 6.6-7.0 Rural sky - Weak glow at the horizon above distant towns
4 Green / 6.1-6.5 Rural/Suburban transition - Negative effect on stargazing
5 Yellow / 5.6-6.0 Suburban sky - Strong negative effect on stargazing
6 Orange / 5.1-5.5 Bright Suburban sky - Milky Way is invisible
7 Red / 4.6-5.0 Suburban/Urban transition - Less than 100 stars visible to the naked eye
8 White / 4.1-4.5 City sky - Less than 20 stars visible to the naked eye
9 White / 4.0 at best Inner City sky - Entire night sky has a bright glow, only the brightest constellations are discernable
Classification Peak Flux [W/m^2] Percentage of Annual Flares (2013 Data) Earth Impacts
X I >= 10^-4 0.34% The most intense solar flares; ten times as intense as M-class flares; capable of causing planet-wide radio blackouts and radiation storms.
M 10^-5 < I < 10^-4 2.66% Ten times as intense as C-class flares; medium-sized flares capable of causing brief radio blackouts or interference. Occasionally causes subsequent geomagnetic storms.
C 10^-6 < I < 10^-5 59.23% The most frequent flare classification - ten times as intense as B-class flares; these flares are relatively small with few noticeable consequences on Earth.
B I < 10^-6 37.77% These and A-class flares are generally regarded as near-background levels.
Meteor Shower Name Pronounciation Peak Nights Mean Meteor Velocity Best Viewed From
Quadrantids [kwa-DRAN-tids] January 3-4 26 miles/sec [medium] Northern Hemisphere
Lyrids [LIE-rids] April 22-23 30 miles/sec [medium] Northern Hemisphere
Eta Aquariids [EIGHT-a ACK-wah-rids] May 6-7 42 miles/sec [swift] Southern Hemisphere
Alpha Capricornids [AL-fa CAP-rih-CORN-ids] July 27-28 15 miles/sec [slow] Everywhere
Delta Aquariids [DEL-ta ACK-wah-rids] July 28-29 26 miles/sec [medium] Southern Hemisphere/Tropics
Perseids [PURR-see-ids] NOT "Per-sade" August 12-13 37 miles/sec [swift] Northern Hemisphere
Orionids [o-RYAN-ids] October 21-22 41 miles/sec [swift] Everywhere
Southern Taurids [southern TORR-ids] October 23-24 17 miles/sec [slow] Southern Hemisphere
Northern Taurids [northern TORR-ids] November 11-12 18 miles/sec [medium] Northern Hemisphere
Leonids [LEO-nids] November 17-18 44 miles/sec [swift] Everywhere
Geminids [JIM-o-nids] December 13-14 22 miles/sec [medium] Northern Hemisphere
Ursids [ER-sids] December 21-22 20 miles/sec [medium] Northern Hemisphere Only





Hazard Level
& Color Zone
Category Number
Description
No Hazard (White Zone)
0
"The likelihood of a collision is zero, or is so low as to be effectively zero. Also applies to small objects such as meteors and bodies that burn up in the atmosphere as well as infrequent meteorite falls that rarely cause damage."
Normal (Green Zone)
1
"A routine discovery in which a pass near the Earth is predicted that poses no unusual level of danger. Current calculations show the chance of collision is extremely unlikely with no cause for public attention or public concern. New telescopic observations very likely will lead to re-assignment to Level 0."
Meriting Attention by Astronomers (Yellow Zone)
2
"A discovery, which may become routine with expanded searches, of an object making a somewhat close but not highly unusual pass near the Earth. While meriting attention by astronomers, there is no cause for public attention or public concern as an actual collision is very unlikely. New telescopic observations very likely will lead to re-assignment to Level 0."
Meriting Attention by Astronomers (Yellow Zone)
3
"A close encounter, meriting attention by astronomers. Current calculations give a 1% or greater chance of collision capable of localized destruction. Most likely, new telescopic observations will lead to re-assignment to Level 0. Attention by public and by public officials is merited if the encounter is less than a decade away."
Meriting Attention by Astronomers (Yellow Zone)
4
"A close encounter, meriting attention by astronomers. Current calculations give a 1% or greater chance of collision capable of regional devastation. Most likely, new telescopic observations will lead to re-assignment to Level 0. Attention by public and by public officials is merited if the encounter is less than a decade away."
Threatening (Orange Zone)
5
"A close encounter posing a serious, but still uncertain threat of regional devastation. Critical attention by astronomers is needed to determine conclusively whether or not a collision will occur. If the encounter is less than a decade away, governmental contingency planning may be warranted."
Threatening (Orange Zone)
6
"A close encounter by a large object posing a serious but still uncertain threat of a global catastrophe. Critical attention by astronomers is needed to determine conclusively whether or not a collision will occur. If the encounter is less than three decades away, governmental contingency planning may be warranted."
Threatening (Orange Zone)
7
"A very close encounter by a large object, which if occurring this century, poses an unprecedented but still uncertain threat of a global catastrophe. For such a threat in this century, international contingency planning is warranted, especially to determine urgently and conclusively whether or not a collision will occur."
Certain Collisions (Red Zone)
8
"A collision is certain, capable of causing localized destruction for an impact over land or possibly a tsunami if close offshore. Such events occur on average between once per 50 years and once per several 1000 years."
Certain Collisions (Red Zone)
9
"A collision is certain, capable of causing unprecedented regional devastation for a land impact or the threat of a major tsunami for an ocean impact. Such events occur on average between once per 10,000 years and once per 100,000 years."
Certain Collisions (Red Zone)
10
"A collision is certain, capable of causing global climatic catastrophe that may threaten the future of civilization as we know it, whether impacting land or ocean. Such events occur on average once per 100,000 years, or less often."
Magnitude Damage Frequency/Description
< 2.0 Mirco ~8,000 per day/Not perceivable
2.0-2.9 Minor ~1,000 per day/Generally not perceivable, but recorded
3.0-3.9 Minor ~49,000 per year/Often felt, but cause no damage
4.0-4.9 Light ~6,200 per year/Noticeable shaking of indoor items; significant damage unlikely
5.0-5.9 Moderate ~800 per year/Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings over small regions; Slight damage possible to well-designed buildings
6.0-6.9 Strong ~120 per year/Can be destructive in areas up to about 100 miles across in populated areas
7.0-7.9 Major ~18 per year/Can cause serious damage over large areas
8.0-8.9 Massive ~1 per year/Can cause severe damage in areas hundreds of miles across
9.0-9.9 Catastro-phic ~1 per year/Devastating and catastrophic damage in areas several thousand miles across
10.0+ Incredible (Unkown) Never recorded/Widespread damage across very large areas (Unknown)