Climate is the historical average of weather for a given period. Simply put, the maximum temperature for a certain day is weather, but predicting what the likely maximum temperature for that same day will be based on historical data is an aspect of climate. An analogy that can further clarify weather and climate is as follows: weather : single basketball game :: climate : entire basketball season.
The connection we can make here is that you can use the average performance of the basketball team over the entire season to predict how the team will perform during their next game. For instance, if the team averages 75 points per game over 20 games, then predicting that the team will score around 75 points in their next game is a reasonable estimate. However, one star player may be injured, or the caliber of the opposing team changes the outlook of the game, and that is precisely what happens with weather forecasting as well. Using climate as a baseline estimate of what weather conditions to expect is a good start, but so many other factors control what weather conditions will be observed.
Typically, climatological averages are based on a 30-year average of weather data. Currently, the 30-year period from 1981-2010 is used for most climatological records.
Central North Carolina Climatological Temperatures by Day:
METHODOLOGY: The two adjacent tables below show the dates of the year which feature a change in the climatological, or mean/average, maximum and minimum temperatures in central North Carolina. The mean temperature columns are the computed average of the mean temperatures at the KRDU, KGSO, and KFAY stations in Raleigh, Greensboro, and Fayetteville, respectively. Temperature data from the 1981-2010 climate period was used in these computations, and these tables can be used as a quick guide to reference when mean maximum and minimum temperatures change. The mean temperature columns were averaged in order to serve as a better spatial representation of central North Carolina instead of a single city or county.